# Determine if a Cow is a Tiger using Backward Chaining Algorithm

## Question:

Based on the rules and facts provided, is a cow considered to be a tiger?

## Answer:

By using the backward chaining algorithm and evaluating the rules and facts provided, we determined that the cow is not a tiger but rather a mammal that gives milk.

The question asks whether a cow is a tiger, and it provides a series of rules and facts along with a backward chaining algorithm to determine the answer. Let's go through the process step by step.

The backward chaining algorithm starts with the initial statement, "Cow is a tiger," and checks if it matches any conclusion in the rules. In this case, it matches Rule 4: "IF cow has black stripes AND cow is a carnivore, THEN cow is a tiger." Since the conclusion matches the initial statement, the algorithm adds the conditions of Rule 4 to the queue.

The queue now contains: ['cow has black stripes', 'cow is a carnivore']

Next, we need to check if these conditions match any other rules. Looking at the facts provided, we can see that the cow does have black stripes (F1: cow has black stripes) and it eats meat (F2: cow eats meat). These conditions match Rule 3: "IF cow eats meat AND cow is a mammal, THEN cow is a carnivore." Therefore, the algorithm adds the condition "cow is a mammal" to the queue.

The queue now contains: ['cow has black stripes', 'cow is a carnivore', 'cow is a mammal']

Now, we check if the condition "cow is a mammal" matches any rules. Looking at the facts provided, we can see that the cow gives milk (F4: cow gives milk), which indicates that it is a mammal. Since this condition matches Rule 1: "IF cow gives milk, THEN cow is a mammal," the algorithm adds the conclusion "cow gives milk" to the queue.

The queue now contains: ['cow has black stripes', 'cow is a carnivore', 'cow is a mammal', 'cow gives milk']

At this point, we have checked all the rules and facts, and the queue contains the conclusion "cow gives milk." Based on this process, we can conclude that the cow is not a tiger. Instead, we know that the cow gives milk, which aligns with Rule 1.

To summarize, by using the backward chaining algorithm and evaluating the rules and facts provided, we determined that the cow is not a tiger but rather a mammal that gives milk.